Ruhollah Khomeini Supreme Leader of Iran. Saddam Hussein President Iraq. Iraq wanted to replace Iran as the dominant Persian Gulf state, and was worried that the Iranian Revolution would lead Iraq's Shi'ite majority to rebel against the Ba'athist government.
The war also followed a long history of border disputesand Iraq planned to annex the oil-rich Khuzestan Province and the east bank of the Shatt al-Arab Arvand Rud. Although Iraq hoped to take advantage of Iran's post-revolutionary chaosit made limited progress and was quickly repelled; Iran regained virtually all lost territory by June For the next six years, Iran was on the offensive  until near the end of the war. After eight years, war-weariness, economic problems, decreased morale, repeated Guerra do golfo yahoo dating military failures, recent Iraqi successes, Iraqi use of weapons of mass destruction and lack of international sympathy, and increased U.
The conflict has been compared to World War I in terms of the tactics used, including large-scale trench warfare with barbed wire stretched across fortified defensive lines, manned machine gunsbayonet charges, Iranian Guerra do golfo yahoo dating wave attacks, extensive use of chemical weapons by Iraq, Guerra do golfo yahoo dating, later, deliberate attacks on civilian targets.
An estimatedIraqi and Iranian soldiers died, in addition to a smaller number of civilians. The end of the war resulted in neither reparations nor border changes. Iraqi invasion of Iran When informed of this plot, Saddam ordered the execution of dozens of his army's officers and in a sign of reconciliation, Ruhollah Khomeinian exiled leader of clerical opposition to the Shah, from Iraq.
Despite this, Saddam merely considered the Algiers Agreement to be a truce, rather than a definite settlement, and waited for an opportunity to contest it. Tensions between Iraq and Iran were fueled by Iran's Islamic revolution and its appearance of being a Pan-Islamic force, in contrast to Iraq's Arab nationalism. Despite Iraq's goals of regaining the Shatt al-Arab, [note 1] the Iraqi government seemed to initially welcome Iran's Revolution, which overthrew Iran's Shah, who was seen as a common enemy.
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini called Guerra do golfo yahoo dating Iraqis to overthrow the Ba'ath government, which was received with considerable anger in Baghdad. Saddam's primary interest in war may have also stemmed from his desire to right the supposed "wrong" of the Algiers Agreement, in addition to finally achieving his desire of annexing Khuzestan and becoming the regional superpower. ByIraq possessedsoldiers, 2, tanks and aircraft.
On 8 MarchIran announced it was withdrawing its ambassador from Iraq, downgraded its diplomatic ties to
Guerra do golfo yahoo dating charge d'affaires level, and demanded that Iraq do the same. Iraq began planning offensives, confident that they would succeed. Iran lacked both cohesive leadership and spare parts for their American-made and British-made equipment.
The Iraqis could mobilise up to 12 mechanised divisionsand morale was running high. Through the s, Saddam had armed his forces with the latest military Guerra do golfo yahoo dating from the Soviet Union.
In addition, the area around the Shatt al-Arab posed no obstacle for the Iraqis, as they possessed river crossing equipment. Iraq correctly deduced that Iran's defences at the crossing points around the Karkheh and Karoun Rivers were undermanned and that the rivers could be easily crossed. Iraqi intelligence was also informed that the Iranian forces in Khuzestan which consisted of two divisions prior to the revolution now only consisted of several ill-equipped and under-strength battalions.
Only a handful of company -sized tank units remained operational.
Despite the purge of several key pilots and commanders, as well as the lack of spare parts, the air force showed its power during local uprisings and rebellions. They were also active after the failed U. Based on these observations, Iraq's leaders decided to carry out a surprise airstrike against the Iranian air force's infrastructure prior to the main invasion.
In Iran, severe officer purges including numerous executions ordered by Sadegh Khalkhalithe new Revolutionary Court judgeand shortages of spare parts for Iran's U. Between February and SeptemberIran's government executed 85 senior generals and forced all major-generals and most brigadier-generals into early retirement.
The most highly skilled soldiers and aviators were exiled, imprisoned, or executed. Throughout the war, Iran never managed to fully recover from this flight of human capital. When the invasion occurred, many pilots and officers were released from prison, or had their executions commuted to combat the Iraqis. In addition,
Guerra do golfo yahoo dating junior officers were promoted to generals, resulting in the army being more integrated as a part of the regime by the war's end, as it is today.
Meanwhile, a new paramilitary organisation gained prominence in Iran, the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps often shortened to Revolutionary Guardsand known in Iran as the Sepah-e-Pasdaran which was intended to protect the new regime and counterbalance the decaying army. Despite having Guerra do golfo yahoo dating trained as a paramilitary organisation, after the Iraqi invasion, they were forced to act as a regular army.
Initially, they refused to fight alongside the army, which resulted in many defeats, but, bythe two groups began carrying out combined operations. They often acted in conjunction with the Revolutionary Guard, launching so-called human wave attacks and other campaigns against the Iraqis.
The human wave has been largely misconstrued both by the popular media in the West and by many scholars. The Iranians did not merely assemble masses of individuals, point them at the enemy, and order a charge. The waves were made up of the man squads mentioned above [in response to Khomeini's call for the people to come to Iran's defense, each mosque organized 22 volunteers into a squad].
Each squad was assigned a specific objective. In battle, they would surge forward to accomplish their missions, and thus gave the impression of a human wave pouring against enemy lines. The most important dispute was over the Shatt al-Arab waterway. Iran repudiated the demarcation line established in the Constantinople Protocol of November Iran asked the border to run along the thalwegthe deepest point of the navigable channel.
Iraq encouraged by Britain took Iran to the League of Nations inbut their disagreement was not resolved. Finally in Iran and Iraq signed their first boundary treaty. The treaty established the waterway border on the eastern bank of the river except for a four-mile anchorage zone near Abadan, which was allotted to Iran and where the border ran along the thalweg.
But five years later, on 17 SeptemberIraq suddenly abrogated the Algiers Protocol following the Iranian revolution. Saddam Hussein claimed that the Islamic Republic of Iran refused to abide by the stipulations of the Algiers Protocol and, therefore, Iraq considered the Protocol null and void.
Five days later, the Iraqi army crossed the border. Iraq launched "Guerra do golfo yahoo dating" full-scale invasion of Iran on 22
Guerra do golfo yahoo dating Of Iraq's six divisions that were invading by ground, four were sent to Khuzestan, which was located near the border's southern end, to cut off the Shatt al-Arab [note 1] from the rest of Iran and to establish a territorial security zone.
The two armoured divisions secured the territory bounded by the cities of Khorramshahr, AhvazSusangerdand Musian. Though the Iraqi air invasion surprised the Iranians, the Iranian air force retaliated the day after with a large-scale attack against Iraqi air bases and infrastructure in Operation Kaman Groups of F-4 Phantom and F-5 Tiger fighter jets attacked targets throughout Iraq, such as oil facilities, dams, petrochemical plants, and oil refineries, and included Mosul AirbaseBaghdad, and the Kirkuk oil refinery.
Iraq was taken by surprise at the strength of the retaliation which caused the Iraqis heavy losses and economic disruption, but the Iranians took heavy losses as well as they lost many aircraft and aircrews to Iraqi air defenses.
Iranian Army Aviation 's AH-1 Cobra helicopter gunships began attacks on the advancing Iraqi divisions, along with F-4 Phantoms armed with Maverick missiles Guerra do golfo yahoo dating  they destroyed numerous armoured vehicles and impeded the Iraqi advance, though not completely halting it. The Iranian regular military, police forces, volunteer Basij, and Revolutionary "Guerra do golfo yahoo dating" all conducted their operations separately; thus, the Iraqi invading forces did not face coordinated resistance.
On 30 September, Iran's air force launched Operation Scorch Swordstriking and badly damaging the nearly-complete Osirak nuclear reactor near Baghdad.
The mountainous border between Iran and Iraq made a deep ground invasion almost impossible,  and air strikes were used instead. The invasion's first waves were a series of air strikes targeted at Iranian airfields. Iraq also attempted to bomb Tehran, Iran's capital and command centre, into submission. On 22 September, a prolonged battle began in the city of Khorramshahr, eventually leaving 7, dead on each side. The battle began with Iraqi air raids against key points and mechanised divisions advancing on the city in a crescent-like formation.
They were slowed by Iranian air attacks and Revolutionary Guard troops with recoilless riflesrocket-propelled grenadesand Molotov cocktails. The next day, the Iraqis launched infantry and armoured attacks into the city. After heavy house-to-house fightingthe Iraqis were repelled.
On 14 October, the Iraqis launched a second offensive. The Iranians launched a controlled withdrawal from the city, street by street. Some partisans remained, and fighting continued until 10 November. The people of Iran, rather than turning against their still-weak Islamic Republic, rallied around their country.
An estimatedfresh troops had arrived at the front by November, many of "Guerra do golfo yahoo dating" ideologically committed volunteers. Though Khorramshahr was finally captured, the battle had delayed the Iraqis enough to allow the Guerra do golfo yahoo dating deployment of the Iranian military. However, the Iraqi offensive had been badly damaged by Iranian militias and air power. Iran's air force had destroyed Iraq's army supply depots and fuel supplies, and was strangling the country through an aerial siege.
When Iraq laid siege to Abadan and dug its troops in around the city, it was unable to blockade the port, which allowed Iran to resupply Abadan by sea. Iraq's strategic reserves had been depleted, and by now it lacked the power to go on any major offensives until nearly the end of the war.
For the next eight months, both sides were to be on a defensive footing with the exception of the Battle of Dezfulas the Iranians needed more time to reorganise their forces after the damage inflicted by the purge of — Of the regular divisions, only seven Guerra do golfo yahoo dating deployed to the border.
The war bogged down into World War I-style trench warfare with tanks and modern lateth century weapons. Due to the power of anti-tank weapons such as the RPG-7armored manoeuvre by the Iraqis was very costly, and they consequently entrenched their tanks into static positions.
Iraq also began firing Scud missiles into Dezful and Ahvaz, and used terror bombing to bring the war to the Iranian civilian population. Reporters counted roughly destroyed or deserted Iranian tanks, and also 40 Iraqi The battle had been ordered by Iranian president Abulhassan Banisadrwho was hoping that a victory might shore up his deteriorating political position; instead, the failure Guerra do golfo yahoo dating his fall.
Once he was impeached and the competition ended, the performance of the Iranian military improved. Iran was further distracted by internal fighting between the regime and the Islamic Marxist Mujaheddin e-Khalq MEK on the streets of Iran's major cities in June and again in September.
The People's Mujahedin of Iran started to take the side of Saddam in or mid s. Less emphasis was placed on the Army with its conventional tactics, and more emphasis was placed on the Revolutionary Guard Guerra do golfo yahoo dating its unconventional tactics. However, on 3 Aprilthe Iranian air force used eight F-4 Phantom fighter bombers, four F Tomcats, three Boeing refuelling tankers, and one Boeing command plane to launch a surprise attack on H3destroying 27—50 fighter jets and bombers.
Despite the successful H-3 airbase attack in addition Guerra do golfo yahoo dating other air attacksin April, the Iranian Air Force was forced to
Guerra do golfo yahoo dating its successful day air offensive.
In addition, they gave up trying to hold total control of Iranian airspace. Due to the heavy toll of sanctions and pre-war purges, the Iranian Air Force could not suffer further attrition, and made the decision in order to limit their losses.
They were also damaged by a fresh purge, after the impeachment crisis of President Banisadr. While throughout — the Iraqi air force would remain weak, within the next few years they would rearm and expand again, and begin to regain the strategic initiative.
Since the Iranians suffered from a shortage of heavy weapons : Star Jr. (born November 15, ) is the ring name of a Mexican luchador enmascarado, IWRG including working on IWRG's Guerra del Golfo (" Gulf War") major event.
Winner (wager), Loser (wager), Location, Event, Date, Notes. función martes 7 de julio arena México". Yahoo Deportes (in Spanish). Yahoo!. 28 set. Na Guerra do Golfo deos incidentes foram limitados ao engajamento de Patriot abateu um F a oeste de Karbala, no Iraque. O corpo do cgi?date= 3&briefing=0>, Acesso em: 5 de maio de The United. Los enfrentamientos han provocado una guerra civil en un país que ya se Irán niega las acusaciones de los gobernantes de países del Golfo Pérsico.
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