Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Numerical issues in statistical computing for the social scientist. Stuart Hunter, David G. Kendall A complete list of the titles in this series appears at the end of this volume.
Published simultaneously in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section or of the United States Copyright Act, without either
Stefano marsaglia wife sexual dysfunction prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: ISBN acid-free paper 1. Social sciences—Statistical methods—Data processing. Consequences of Numerical Inaccuracy 1 1. Duhem to the Twenty-First Century 3 1.
Rare Events Counts Models 6 1. The Slice Sampler 5. Noninvertible Hessians 6. In one sense it is a pure research book in the traditional manner: But perhaps more generally it is a guidebook like those used by naturalists to identify wild species. Stefano marsaglia wife sexual dysfunction
Only a few are wild; most are reasonably domesticated. A great many empirical researchers in the social sciences take computational factors for granted: This book seeks to rectify this discrepancy by providing a rich set of interrelated chapters on important aspects of social science statistical computing that will guide empirical social scientists past the traps and mines of modern statistical computing.
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There are two pathologies that can result. Alternatively, something disastrous happens during the numerical calculations, yet seemingly reasonable output results. This is much worse, because there are no indications that something has failed, and incorrect statistical output becomes a component of the larger project.
We focus here to a great extent on problems that can occur in maximum likelihood estimation and nonlinear regression because these are, with the exception of simple linear models, the methods most widely used by social scientists.
Straightforward com- putational techniques such as data rescaling, changes of starting values, function reparameterization, and proper use of analytic derivatives can then be used to reduce or eliminate many numerical problems. Other important and recent sta- tistical approaches that we discuss are ecological inference, logistic regression, Markov chain Monte Carlo, and spatial analysis.
The reader is not required to have an extensive background in mathematical statistics, advanced matrix algebra, or computer science. In general, the reader should have at least a year Stefano marsaglia wife sexual dysfunction statistics training, including maximum likelihood estimation, modest matrix algebra, and some basic calculus.
In addition, rudimentary programming knowledge in a statistical package or compiled language is required to understand and implement the ideas herein. Some excellent sources for addressing these preliminaries can be found in the following sources. A basic introductory statistics course, along the lines of such texts as: It will not be
Stefano marsaglia wife sexual dysfunction for readers to have an extensive knowledge of linear algebra or experience with detailed calculations.
Instead, knowledge of the structure of matrices, matrix and vector manipulation, and essential symbology will be assumed. Having said that, two wonderful reference books that we advise owning are the theory book by Laxand the aptly entitled book by HarvilleMatrix Algebra from a Statisticians Perspective.
Elementary knowledge of calculus is important. Helpful, basic, and inexpensive basic texts include Kleppner and RamseyBleauThompson and Gardnerand for a very basic intro- duction, see Downing Although we avoid extensive derivations, this material is occasionally helpful. Programming Although knowledge of programming is not required, most readers of this book are, or should be, Stefano marsaglia wife sexual dysfunction. By program- ming we mean working with statistical languages: If all available social science statistical solutions were available as point-and-click solutions in SPSS, there would not be very many truly interesting models in print.
There are two, essentially diametric views on programming among academic practitioners in the social sciences. One is emblemized by a well-known quote from Hoarep.
It is a reward- ing activity because practitioners can almost instantly see the fruits of their labor. We give extensive guidance here about the practice of statistical pro- gramming Stefano marsaglia wife sexual dysfunction it is important for doing advanced work and for generating high-quality work.
Layout of Book and Course Organization There are two basic sections to this book. Given the extensive methodological cross-fertilization that occurs in the social sciences, these chapters should have more than a narrow appeal.
The book is organized as a single-semester assignment accompanying text. A general format is followed within each chapter in this work, despite widely varying topics. Each point is illustrated using data that social scientists care about and can relate to.
This last point is not trivial; a great many books in overlapping areas focus on examples from biostatistics, and the result
Stefano marsaglia wife sexual dysfunction often to reduce reader interest and perceived applicability in the social sciences.
Therefore, every example is taken from the social and behavioral sciences, including: Many researchers in quantitative social science will simply read this book from beginning to end.
For those who do not have the time or training to read the entire book, we recommend the following: These may be read without prerequisites. Stefano marsaglia wife sexual dysfunction students using more advanced statistical models should also read Chapters 5 and 8, although these require more some mathematical background. However, we hope readers will enjoy the entire work. Web Site Accompanying this book is a Web site: In addition, the Web site includes links to all of the code and data used in this book and not otherwise described in detail, in order to assist other scholars in carrying out similar analyses on other datasets.
Debts and Dedications We would like to thank the support of our host institutions: All three of us have worked in and enjoyed the Harvard—MIT Data Center as a research area, as a Stefano marsaglia wife sexual dysfunction of data, and as an intellectual environment to test Stefano marsaglia wife sexual dysfunction ideas.
We also unjammed the printer a Stefano marsaglia wife sexual dysfunction and debugged the e-mail system on occasion while there. We thank Gary King for supporting our presence at the center. The list of "Stefano marsaglia wife sexual dysfunction" to thank in Stefano marsaglia wife sexual dysfunction effort is vast. A special thanks go to our contributing authors, Paul "Stefano marsaglia wife sexual dysfunction," Gary King, James LeSage, and Bruce McCullough, for their excellent work, tire- less rewriting efforts, and general patience with the three of us.
Special thanks also go to our editor, Steve Quigley, as well, since this project would not exist without his inspiration, prodding, and general guidance. All of this produced very nice layouts with only moderate effort on our part. Consequences of Numerical Inaccuracy 1. Well-known research conducted from to linked small-particle air pollution to health problems in 90 U.
Instead of adjusting the program to the circumstances that they were studying, they used standard default settings for some calculations. Problems with numerical applications are practically as old as computers: Unreliable software is sometimes even expected and tolerated by experienced researchers. Rounding errors in numerical calculations were blamed for the failure of the Patriot missile defense to protect an army barracks in Dhahran from a Scud missile attack in during Operation Desert Storm Higham Intwo Mars-bound spacecraft were lost, due at least in part to software errors—one involving failure to check the units as inputs Carreau Numer- ical software bugs have even affected our understanding of the basic structure of the universe: The other sciences, and the social sciences in particular, have had their share of less publicized numerical problems: Our research and that of others has exposed errors in articles recently published in political and social sci- ence journals that can be traced to numerical inaccuracies in statistical software Altman and McDonald ; McCullough and Vinod ; Stokes Unfortunately, numerical errors in published social science analyses can be revealed only through replication of the research.
There are two primary sources of potential Stefano marsaglia wife sexual dysfunction in numerical algorithms pro- grammed on computers: First, small computational inaccuracies occur at the precision level of all sta- tistical software when digits beyond the storage capacity of the computer must be rounded or truncated. Researchers may be tempted to dismiss this threat to valid- ity because measurement error miscoding of data, survey sampling error, etc.
But these small errors may propagate and magnify in unexpected ways in the many calculations underpinning statistical algorithms, producing wildly erroneous results on their own, or exacerbating the effects of measurement error. Ran- dom number generators may be subtly biased: An understanding of the limits of statistical software can help researchers avoid estimation errors. For typical estimation, such as ordinary least squares regression, well-designed off-the-shelf statistical software will generally produce reliable estimates.
For complex algorithms, our knowledge of model building has outpaced our knowledge of computational statistics. Awareness of the limits of computational statistics may further aid in model testing. Social scientists are sometimes faced with iterative models that fail to converge, software that produces nonsensical results, Hessians that cannot be inverted, and other problems associated with estimation.
An understanding of computational issues can offer "Stefano marsaglia wife sexual dysfunction" more immediately available solution—such as use of more accu- rate computations, changing algorithmic parameters of the software, or appropri- ate rescaling of the data. The foremost of the instruments used by modern applied statisticians is the computer.
Many articles published in leading statistics journals of the time addressed methods by which these calculations could be made less drudgingly repetitious because it was noticed that as tedium increases linearly, careless mistakes increase exponentially or thereabouts. and McNemar Computation, it turns out, played an important role in scholarship even before the task was handed over to machines.
InHotelling and others called attention to the accumulation of errors in the solutions for inverting matrices in the method of Stefano marsaglia wife sexual dysfunction squares Hotelling and other matrix manipulation Turing Knight Landesman, Resigned, Amid Reports of Sexual Misconduct, Source 1 .
of Jennifer Riordan - his wife died on Apr. 16th as Wells Fargo Exec. New Zealand, CEO, Theo Spierings, Resigned, as China problems hit profits, Source 1. 21,Bank, TBC Bank Group PLC, UK, Director, Stefano Marsaglia. drawn, with careful selection to function in particular iconographic contexts .
Effects of Clay Shrinkage on Sex Estimation of Dermatoglyphic Impressions on Ceramics Marsaglia, Kathleen  see Lawrence, John and the Ancestral Pueblo, wherein only Pueblo men or Pueblo women married into Fremont groups. We focus here to a great extent on problems that can occur in maximum An early technique (Maclaren and Marsaglia ), still
Stefano marsaglia wife sexual dysfunction use, is to use one LCG to shufﬂe For example, suppose that marital status has ﬁve categories: never married, If sex is left in the model, the coefﬁcients for the remaining variables ( e.g.
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Romp to principal content. Log In Vestige Up. Numerical issues in statistical computing for the social scientist. Stuart Nimrod, David G. Kendall A complete menu of the titles in this series appears at the culminate of that volume. Published simultaneously in Canada. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval combination, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or in another situation, except as permitted directed Section or of the United States Copyright Stance, without either the latest written acquiescence of the Publisher, or authorization payment of the correct per-copy toll to the Copyright Consent Center, Inc.
No bond may be created or extended next to sales representatives or written sales materials. The news and strategies contained herein may not be satisfactory for your situation.
If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. The iron is stored predominantly as hemosiderin. The liver, heart, pancreas, endocrine organs, skin, and joints are principally affected.
Cirrhosis, cardiomyopathy, diabetes mellitus, hypogonadism, skin pigmentation, and arthritis may occur with full clinical expression. The iron enters the body via the gastrointestinal tract, because of a failure of the mechanism controlling the absorption of dietary iron.
Hereditary hemochromatosis is most commonly the consequence of mutations in a gene that has been designated HFE , located approximately 4 megabases telomeric to the HLA-A locus on the short arm of chromosome 6; the gene defect causes the absorption of more iron than is required.
Some patients with hereditary hemochromatosis have some other defect, as yet unknown, not linked to the HLA loci. A clinical and pathologic state of iron loading, similar to that of hereditary hemochromatosis, also occurs as a result of the iron burden caused by red cell transfusion and increased gastrointestinal iron absorption in patients with refractory anemias and thalassemia.
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Role of hematocrit concentration. In refractory anemias the iron can be eliminated only by administering deferoxamine, which is infused over 10 to 12 h out of every 24, usually subcutaneously. However, the EAI significantly decreased with respect to the hematocrit values.
Statistical packages should provide warnings when data are read improperly, even though we speculate that astute users will detect truncations of rows or columns by comparing descriptive statistics to known results for these data.
This is not the case with all algorithms. Other important and recent sta- tistical approaches that we discuss are ecological inference, logistic regression, Markov chain Monte Carlo, and spatial analysis.
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